Dengue Fever Screening

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    Dengue Fever Screening 4 test-

    1. CBC
    2. Blood Grouping
    3. Dengue NS1 Antigen
    4. Dengue IgG & IgM.

    What is Dengue Antigen NS1, IgG & IgM?

    The Dengue Antigen NS1, IgG & IgM test is done to diagnose fever especially if the fever is experienced after travel to a tropical or subtropical area.


    Why is Dengue Antigen NS1, IgG & IgM done?

    The Dengue Antigen NS1, IgG & IgM test is done in case there is high fever within 2 weeks of travel to an area where dengue outbreak is occurring or dengue fever is endemic.


    What does Dengue Antigen NS1, IgG & IgM Measure?


    The dengue antigen NS1, IgG & IgM test measures the dengue virus or antibodies which are produced in response to dengue infection. Dengue fever is a viral infection which is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes which live in tropical and subtropical climates and are responsible for carrying the virus. 

    According to CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), in more than 100 countries, dengue infections have been reported from parts of Africa, America, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Caribbean Western Pacific, and Southeast Asia. 

    According to the WHO (World Health Organization), dengue is a fast emerging infectious disease. The number of cases as well as the countries getting affected by dengue is increasing significantly. As 75% of cases do not show any symptoms, the actual number is not known but approximately the annual number of dengue infections are as high as 390 million. 

    Majority of the affected individuals develop no symptoms or develop only mild illness when they are exposed to one of the four serotypes of the dengue virus. In case, a patient developed symptoms, the prognosis is good for full recovery within a few weeks. 

    The initial symptoms which are commonly seen include sudden high fever and flu-like symptoms which appear about 4 to 7 days after being infected by a dengue mosquito. Other signs and symptoms include severe headache, especially behind the eyes, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, and swollen glands.

    In some cases, people recover from the fever on their own but some might progress to severe dengue fever which is known as Dengue hemorrhagic fever. In this case, symptoms such as nose bleeding, blood in vomiting, blood in the stool, difficulty in breathing, cold clammy skin, especially in the extremities are seen. During the next i.e. second phase, the virus attacks the vascular system (blood vessels), which causes capillaries to leak fluid into the space around the lungs, which is known as pleural effusion or into the abdominal cavity which is known as ascites. If not treated, it can worsen and become fatal to health. 


    Interpreting Dengue Antigen NS1, IgG & IgM results


    Interpretations


    Result in index

    Remarks

    Negative (<0.9)

    No detectable dengue NS1 antigen. The result does not rule out dengue infection. An additional sample should be tested for IgG & IgM serology in 7-14 days.

     

    Equivocal (0.9-1.1)

    Repeat sample after 1 week

     

    Positive (>1.1)

    Presence of detectable dengue NS1 antigen. Dengue IgG & IgM serology assays should be performed on follow up samples after 5-7 days of onset of fever, to confirm dengue infection.

     

    Note: Recommended to do NS1 Antigen by ELISA in the first 5 days of fever. After 7-10 days of continuous fever, the recommended test is Dengue fever antibodies IgG & IgM by ELISA.


    ANTIBODY DETECTED

    REMARKS

    IgM

    Primary Dengue

    IgM & IgG

    Late Primary / Early Secondary Dengue

    IgG

    Secondary / Past Dengue

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